Skip to the content

GPC and Memory

Memory declining?

Are loved ones suffering from dementia? Would you like to know about a natural supplement that has been shown as effective as prescription drugs for dementia?



Glycerophosphocholine (GPC) may help:*

  • Memory/mental focus function in elderly and young
  • Mood status
  • Growth hormone production
  • Brain recovery from stroke or injury
  • Age-related changes in brain function
  • Impairment in cognition and social behavior due to Alzheimer's or vascular dementia

At least 23 clinical trials have been done with GPC, all of them with positive outcomes

Improved attention, mental focus, recall, and cognition. Not just in the elderly, but also in young healthy subjects

Improved brain recovery following stroke

Supports hormone secretion (like growth hormone) in the elderly

Reduced symptoms such as fatigue and dizziness

Reduced irritability, emotional stability, and indifference to surroundings

The typical oral doses of GPC used in most trials were 1200 mg per day in divided doses

In comparison with prescription drugs, GPC was shown to be:

  • better than Oxiracetam
  • similar to the Donepezil and superior to Rivastigmine, both of which are acetylcholinesterase inhibitor drugs

References 1. Kidd P, GPC (GlyceroPhosphoCholine),Ortho-Nutraceutical For Active Living and HealthyAging. Townsend Letters. April 2004. 3. Canal N, et al. Effect of l-alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine on amnesia caused by scopolamine. International J Clin Pharmacol Therapy Toxicol 1991;29:103. 4. Canal N, et al. Comparison of the effects of pretreatment with choline alfoscerate, idebenone, aniracetam and placebo on scopolamine-induced amnesia. Le Basi Raz Ter 1993;23:102. 5. Parnetti L, Amenta F, Gallai V. Choline alfoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. Mechs Ageing Dev2001;22:2041. 6. Aguglia E, et al. Choline alphoscerate in the treatment of mental pathology following acute cerebrovascular accident. Funct Neurol 1993;8 (Suppl):5. 7. Barbagallo Sangiorgi G, et al. alpha-glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994;717:253. 8. Tomasina C, et al. Clinical study of the therapeutic effectiveness and tolerability of choline alfoscerate in 15 subjects with compromised cognitive functions subsequent to acute focal cerebral ischemia. Rivista Neuropsi Sci Affini 1996;37:21. 9. Ceda GP, et al. Effects of an acetylcholine precursor on GH secretion in elderly subjects. In: Bercu, BB, Walker, RF, eds. Growth Hormone II: Basic and Clinical Aspects.Springer- Verlag;1994. 17. Amenta F, et al. Treatment of cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease with cholinergic precursors. Ineffective treatments or inappropriate approach es? Mechs Ageing Dev 2001;122:2025. 18. Di Perri R, et al. A multicentre trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of alphaglycerylphosphorylcholine versus cytosine diphosphocholine in patients with vascu- lar dementia. J Intl Med Res 1991;19:330. 19. Frattola L, et al. Multicenter clinical comparison of the effects of choline alfoscerate and cytidine diphosphocholine in the treatment of multi-infarct dementia. Curr Therap Res 1991;49:683. 20. Muratorio A, et al. A neurotropic approach to the treatment of multi-infarct dementia using Lalpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine. Curr Ther Res 1992;52:741. 21. Paciaroni E, Tomassini PF. Clinical study of effectiveness and tolerability of alpha-GFC (choline alfoscerate) vs. oxiracetam in patients suffering from slight/moderate cognitive defect of vascular origin. Gior Ital Rech Clin Terap 1993;14:29. 22. Ban TA, et al. Choline alfoscerate in elderly patients with cognitive decline due to dementing illness. New Trends Clin Neuropharmacol 1991;5:87. 23. Palleschi M, et al. Evaluation of effectiveness and tolerability of alpha-GFC (choline alfoscerate) in patients suffering from slight/moderate cognitive decline. Preliminary results.Geriatria 1992;4:13. 25. Parnetti L, et al. Multicentre study of l-a-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine vs ST200 among patients with probable senile dementia of Alzheimer's type. Drugs & Aging 1993;3:159. 33. Wirthenson G, et al. Role and regulation of glycerophosphocholine in rat renal papilla. Pflu(e)gers Arch. 1987;409:411. 41. Ferraro L, Tanganelli S, Marani L, et al. Evidence for an in vivo and in vitro modulation of endogenous cortical GABA release by alpha- glycerylphosphorylcholine. Neurochem Res 1996;21:547. 42. Schettini G, et al. Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of l-alphaglycerylphosphorylcholine, a new cognition-enhancing drug, on behavioral and biochemical parameters in young and aged rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behavior 1992;43:139. 43. Lacomba C, et al. Effects of l-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine on the EEG power spectrum in the rat. Drug Dev Res 1992;26:101. 44. Infante JP. Defective synthesis of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines as the primary lesion in Duchenne and murine dy muscular dystrophies. Med Hypoth 1986;19:113.

About the author

TetonSage, Rexburg, ID 83440